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Chills Green icon of person with chills

As defined by Western medicine, chills encompass the sensation of coldness accompanied by shivering—a response that can arise from exposure to cold environments or mark the onset of infection coupled with fever. In Western medicine, the phenomenon of chills is attributed to the rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles, a process that generates heat to counteract the cold sensation (Shivkumar et al., 2018, Temperature).

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the etiology of chills is explored through the lens of three potential patterns of disharmony. The first pattern, known as Exterior-Cold, transcends the traditional notion of external pathogenic factors and manifests within the body's exterior. In this context, the presence of cold is accompanied by spontaneous fever, often accompanied by wind pathologies (Zhu et al., 2013, Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine). The second pattern, Lesser Yin Cold Transformation, predominantly influences the kidney channel due to the kidneys' pivotal role in governing both Yin and Yang. This pattern signifies a transformation of coldness that underscores kidney Yang deficiency (Gong et al., 2015, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine). The third pattern pertains to spleen yang deficiency, which originates from an underlying spl